Research methods are a set of standardized processes on how to conduct research. Though more common within the sciences, research methods are also utilized within other fields such as business, healthcare services, and education. The type of research method chosen is typically dependent on a number of factors, such as:
In turn, the type of method chosen will determine whether the research will have an inductive or deductive approach. An inductive approach to research focuses on observing phenomena and then arriving at a theoretical explanation for that behavior. A deductive approach works in reverse, beginning first with a theory and then working to find evidence that either supports or refutes it. That said, some research methods can make use of both approaches.
There are two major types of empirical research study (i.e. research based on data of an observed or measured phenomena): qualitative and quantitative. Within each methodologies are a number of design types:
Additionally, there are a number of more recent paradigms gaining traction within academic fields such as mixed methods, action research, and art based.
Each type is discussed in the corresponding tab on the left sidebar.
Cahoy, E. (2018). Empirical research in education and the Behavioral/Social Sciences. Penn State University Libraries. Retrieved from http://guides.libraries.psu.edu/emp
Research methods. (2001). In J. M. Palmisano (Ed.), World of sociology, Gale. Farmington, MI: Gale. Retrieved from http://ezproxyles.flo.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/worldsocs/research_methods/0?institutionId=1429
research methods. (2006). In D. Jary, & J. Jary (Eds.), Collins dictionary of sociology (4th ed.). London, UK: Collins. Retrieved from http://ezproxyles.flo.org/login?url=https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/collinssoc/research_methods/0?institutionId=1429